I was whizzing through this section and saw your question and put on the brakes!!! I'm an old time screen printer from way back.
To answer simply, YES you can use textile ink on paper or canvas too but you can't go the other way... you can't use regular ink on textile because it would wash out!!!
"Stencil technique" may mean different things to different folks because silk screening is technically a stencil itself!
fabric takes special ink try NazDar on google and see what they have in stock for you and the info on it. The mesh count on the screen has to be fine enough to distribute the ink evenly so it will cover you can also make several passes but the big deal is the edge on your squeegee and the amount of pressure you are using when pulling take 220 grit sand paper and LIGHTLY sand the leading egde of the blade of the squeegee so that it is rounded but only a little bit as about an eighth of and inch curve then use a bit less pressure on the pull and pull a bit slower so the ink has a better change of getting thru the mesh in the quantity needed if necessary print a background shape in a good neutral color let it dry then print on top of it with your image. good luck