Silk screening is done in many stages or steps. If you want only 1 color then you need only 1 mask or screen. To have more colors requires a mask (screen) for EACH color and it has to be placed so that each color is in it's OWN proper place and the next and the next and so on.
High detailed photo like quality by silk screen may require a dozen different screens and as many colors, with each one in perfect registry with the others. Colors are applied 1 at a time as the silk screened item goes through the many stages, often on a large round table looking like a wagon wheel with many different screening stages.
Now, this material you showed us is the screen or mask. You make the masks on your computer and print on this screen to make the masks. Your printer burns nothing... It just prints.. Usually a strong UV light source is needed to "develop" the mask by destroying a material on the screen that is not covered by the black ink from your printer. After the exposure to the UV light and washed in a solution your screen is dried and ready to use. Remember, where the printer printed black is what stays so what you print is up to you and what you are trying to make..
The idea behind silk screen is the same as making a stencil, and where the stencil is, no color gets thru, the open areas of the stencil allow the color to go thru.. and each color requires a different and new mask (stencil) and it has to be placed so the next color lines up with the last as well as the next.
You should Google - silk screening - and learn more about how it is done.
Bob - Tucson
Screen printing involves a fine mesh fabric - originally silk - pulled tight on a frame and an emulsion applied to it, exposed, and washed out so a version of one of the colors in the image is represented by open areas in the fabric while the rest is blocked. The frame is clamped down over the shirt and ink or paint is poured in and scraped back and forth to push it through the screen, applying the pattern to the shirt. Each separate color basically requires its own screen.
Digital printing involves an over sized ink jet printer (unless you are talking iron on images) that sweeps the head across a bed that holds the shirt/material flat, putting down all colors at once.
A major difference is that screen printing can be rather cheap and done in a kitchen while digital printing requires a large machine that costs several thousand dollars.