Silk screen printing is probably what you want to get into. Plastisol is the name of an ink manufacturer. And in the textile industry rubberized printing is mostly used for "honey comb" or mesh material where detail is nonexistent.
Bleeding star type printing would not be for the at home type printer unless you were a professional. It has that wow factor that takes a lot of art and printing skills to pull off a functional shirt.
What you want to do is performing a technical near miracle. You having no experience will make it the full miracle.
Problem one: printing on a non flat surface. The solution they use in factories is to silkscreen print on a rubber surface en press that on the curved shape. Doing that by hand may work but is a skill that is hard to master.
Problem two: No matter how good you are, this will mess up a lot of sunglasses.
A more economic and less bothersome way would be to have it printed on transparent vynil and stick those to the glasses.